[The Treaty of Peace between Sweden and Russia, 17/5th of September, 1809.]
In the name of the Holy and Undivided Trinity! His Majesty the King of Sweden, and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, equally animated by the desire of causing the advantages of peace to succeed to the calamities of war, and of re-establishing harmony and good understanding between their states, have, to this effect, appointed their Plenipotentiaries; namely, his Majesty the King of Sweden, Baron Count Louis Bogislas Christopher de Stedinck, one of the Nobles of the kingdom of Sweden, General of Infantry of the Swedish armies, Knight and Commander of the Swedish Orders, Grand Cross of the Order of the Sword, Knight of the Order of St Andrew, of St. Alexander Newsky, and of St. Anne of the first class; and M. Andrew Frederick Skjoldebrand, Colonel and Commander of the Order of the Sword : and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, Count Nicholas Romanzoff, actual Privy Counsellor, Member of the Council of State, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Minister of Commerce, Senator, actual Chamberlain, Knight of the Orders of St. Andrew, St. Alexander Newsky, Grand Cross of the Order of St. Wladimir and of St. Anne of the First Classes, Grand Eagle of the Legion of Honour of France, Knight of the Royal Prussian Orders of the Black Eagle and Red Eagle, and of the Royal Dutch Order of the Union, and M. David Alopeus, actual Chamberlain, Knight of the Grand Cross of the Order of St. Wladimir of the second class, and of St. Anne, of the first; -who, after the exchange of their respective full powers, found to be good and in due form, have agreed upon the following Articles :-
Art. I. There shall henceforth be peace, friendship, and good undertanding between his Majesty the King of Sweden, and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias. The high contracting parties will make it their chief study to maintain a perfect harmony between themselves, their states, and subjects, and will carefully avoid whatever may hereafter disturb the union so happily reestablished.
II. His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias having manifested the invariable resolution not to separate his interests from those of his allies, and his Swedish Majesty wishing to give, in favour of his subjects, all the extent possible to the advantages of the Peace, premises and engages, in the most solemn and binding manner, to neglect nothing which, on his part, may tend to the prompt conclusion of Peace between him and his Majesty the Emperor of the French, King of Italy, and his Majesty the King of Denmark and Norway, by the means of the direct negotiations already commenced with these Powers.
III. His Majesty the King of Sweden, in order to give an evident proof of his desire to renew the most intimate relations with the august allies of his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, promises to adhere to the continental system, with such modifications as shall be more particularly stipulated in the negociation which is about to be opened between Sweden, France, and Denmark. -Meanwhile, his Swedish Majesty engages, from the exchange of the ratifications of the present Treaty, to order that the ports of the kingdom of Sweden shall be closed, both to the ships of war and merchantmen of Great Britain, with the exception of the importation of salt and colonial productions, which habit has rendered necessary to the people of Sweden. -His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias promises beforehand, to consent to every modification which his allies may consider just and fit to be admitted in favour of Sweden, with respect to commerce and mercantile navigation.
IV. His Majesty, the King of Sweden, as well for himself as for his successors to the throne and kingdom of Sweden, renounces irrevocably and in perpetuity, in favour of his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, and his successors to the Throne and Empire of Russia, all his rights and titles to the Governments hereafter specified, which have been conquered from the Crown of Sweden by the arms of his Imperial Majesty in the present war, namely - The Governments of Kymenagard, Nyland, and Tavastehus, Abo and Bjorneborg, with the isles Aland, Savolax and Corelia, Wasa, Uleaborg, and part of West Bothnia, extending to the river of Tornea, as shall be fixed in the subsequent Article in the demarkation of the frontiers. -These governments, with all the inhabitants, towns, ports, fortresses, villages and islands, as well as all the dependencies, prerogatives, rights, and emoluments, shall henceforth belong, in full property and sovereignty, to the Empire of Russia, and shall remain incorporated with it. -To this effect his Majesty the King of Sweden promises, in the most solemn and obligatory manner, as well for himself as for his successors, and all the kingdom of Sweden, never to make any claim, direct or indirect, on the said governments, provinces, islands, and territories, all the inhabitants of which shall, in virtue of this renunciation, be relieved from the homage and oath of fidelity by which they were bound to the Crown of Sweden.
V. The sea of Aland, (Alands Haf) the Gulph of Bothnia, and the rivers of Tornea and Muonio, shall hereafter form the frontier between Russia and the kingdom of Sweden. -The nearest islands, at an equal distance from the mainland of Aland and Finland, shall belong to Russia, and those which are nearest to the Swedish coast shall belong to Sweden. -The most advanced points of the Russian territory, at the mouth of the river of Tornea, shall be the isle of Bjorken, the port of Rentehamn, and the peninsula on which the town of Tornea stands. The frontier shall then be extended along the river Tornea, to the confluences of the two branches of that river, near Kengis. It shall then follow the course of the river Muonio, passing in the front of Muonioniska, Muonio Ofreby, Palajocus, Rultane, Enontekis, Kelottijorfoi, Paitiko, Nuimaka, Raunula and Kilpisjaure, to Norway. -In the course of the rivers Tornea and Muonio, such as it has been described, the islands situated to the east of the Thalwag shall belong to Russia, and those to the west of the Thalwag to Sweden. -Immediately after the exchange of the ratifications, engineers shall be appointed on each side, who shall proceed to the beforementioned places, to fix the limits along the rivers Tornea and Muonio, according to the above described line.
VI. His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias having already given the most manifest proofs of the clemency and justice with which he has resolved to govern the inhabitants of the countries which he has acquired, by generously, and of his own spontaneous act, assuring to them the free exercise of their religion, rights, property, and privileges, his Swedish Majesty considers himself thereby dispensed from performing the otherwise sacred duty of making reservations in the above respect, in favour of his former subjects.
VII. On the signature of the present Treaty, information thereof shall be transmitted immediately, and with the greatest celerity, to the Generals of the respective armies, and hostilities shall entirely cease on both sides, both by sea and land. Those acts of hostility which may in the mean time be committed, shall be regarded as null, and shall not infringe this treaty. Whatever may be, during the intervening period, taken or conquered, on the one side or the other, shall be faithfully restored.
VIII. Within four weeks after the exchange of the Ratifications of the present Treaty, the troops of his Majesty the Emperor of Russia shall evacuate West Bothnia, and repass the river Tornea. -During the said four weeks, there shall be made no requisition of any kind whatever on the inhabitants; and the Russian army shall draw its supplies and subsistence from its own magazines, established in the towns of West Bothnia. -If during the negotiations, the Imperial troops have penetrated in any other direction into the Kingdom of Sweden, they shall evacuate the countries they have occupied, in virtue of the before stipulated conditions.
IX. All the prisoners of war, made on either side, by seaor land, and, all the hostages delivered during the war, shall he restored in mass, and without ransom, as speedily as possible; but at the latest within three months, reckoning from the exchange of the ratifications; but if any prisoners may be prevented by sickness, or other cause, from returning into their country within the period specified, they shall not thereby be considered as having forfeited the right stipulated above. They shall be obliged to discharge, or to give security for, the debts they may have contracted, during their captivity, with the inhabitants of the country in which they may have been detained. -The expences which may have been incurred by the High Contracting Parties, for all subsistence and maintenance of the prisoners, shall be reciprocally renounced, and provision shall respectively be made for their subsistence, and the expence of their journey to the frontiers of both places, where commissioners from their Sovereigns shall be directed to receive them. - The Finland soldiers and seamen are, on the part of his Majesty the Emperor of Russia, excepted from this restitution, with reference to the capitulations which have taken place, if they grant them a different right. -The Military and other Officers, natives of Finland, who may wish to remain, shall enjoy that privilege, and the full exercise of all their righs over their property, debts, and effects, which they have now, or may hereafter have, in the kingdom of Sweden, on the footing of the 10th Article of the present Treaty.
X. The Fins now in Sweden, as well as the Swedes now in Finland, shall be at fall liberty to return into their respective countries, and to dispose of their property, moveable and immoveable, without paying any duty of removal, or any other impost due on the like occasions. - The subjects of the two High Powers, established in either country, Sweden or Finland, shall have full liberty to establish themselves in the other, during the space of three years, from the date of the exchange of the ratification of the present Treaty ; but shall be held to sell or alienate, during the said period, to any subject of the Power whose dominion they desire to quit. -The property of those who, at the expiration of the above term, have not complied with this regulation, shall be sold at a public sale, by authority of the Magistrate, and the produce thereof delivered to the owners. -During the three years above fixed, it shall be allowable to all to make such use as they may please of their property, the peaceable enjoyment of which is formally secured and guaranteed to them. -They may, themselves, or their agents, pass freely from one state to the other, in order to manage their affairs, without experiencing any obstacle whatever, in consequence of their quality of subjects of the other power.
XI. There shall henceforth be a perpetual oblivion of the past, and a general amnesty for the respective subjects, whose opinions, in favour of one or the other in the High Contracting Parties during the present war, may have rendered them suspected or liable to punishment. No trial shall hereafter be instituted against them on such grounds. If any process have been commenced, it shall be annulled and superseded, and no new proceeding shall be commenced. All sequestrations of property or revenues shall in consequence be immediately removed, and the property shall be reserved to the owners ; it being well understood that such as become subjects of either of the two Powers, in virtue of the preceding Article, shall have no right to claim from the Sovereign, of whom they have ceased to be a subject, the annuities or pensions which may have been obtained in virtue of acts of grace, concessions, or appointments, for preceding services.
XII. The titles, domains, archives, and other documents, public and private, the plans and charts of fortresses, towns, and territories, devolved by the present Treaty to his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, including the charts and papers which may be deposited in the Surveyor's Office, shall be faithfully delivered up, within the space of six months ; or if that period should be found too short, at the latest within one year.
XIII. Immediately after the exchange of the ratifications, the High Contracting Parties shall remove all sequestrations which may have been placed on the property or revenues of the respective inhabitants therein situated.
XIV. The debts, both public and private, contracted by the Fins in Sweden, and vice versa, by the Swedes in Finland, shall be discharged on the terms and conditions stipulated.
XV. The subjects of either of the High Contracting Parties, to whom inheritances may fall in the States of one or the other, may, without obstacle, take possession of the same, and enjoy it under the protection of the laws. The exercise of this right, however, in Finland, is subject to the stipulations of Article X. in virtue of which the proprietor shall either fix his residence in the country, or sell the inheritance within three years.
XVI. The duration of the Treaty of Commerce between the High Contracting Parties being limited to the 17th (29th) Oct. 1811, his Majesty the Emperor of Russia consents not to reckon its interruption during the war; and that the said Treaty shall continue in force until the 1st (13th) February, 1813, with respect to every thing not contrary to the dispositions of the Commercial Manifesto issued at St, Petersburgh, Jan. 1st, 1809.
XVII. The territories incorporated with the Russian Empire, in virtue of this Treaty, being attached to Sweden, by commercial relations, which long intercourse, neighbourhood, and reciprocal wants have rendered almost indispensable, the High Contracting Parties, desirous of preserving to their subjects these means of mutual advantage, agree to make such arrangements as may be necessary for consolidating them. In the mean time, until they come to an understanding on this subject, the Fins shall have the power of importing from Sweden, ore, smelted iron, lime, stones for building smelting furnaces, and in general all the other productions of the soil of Sweden. -In return the Swedes may export from Finland, cattle, fish, corn, cloth, pitch, planks, wooden utensils of all kinds, wood for building, and, in general, all the other production of the soil of the Grand Duchy. -This traffic shall be reestablished and maintained to the 1st (13th) of October, 1811, precisely on the same footing as it was before the war, and shall be liable to no interruption or burden, with the reservation or such restrictions as the political relations of the two States may render necessary.
XVIII. The annual exportation of 50,000 schetwerts of corn, purchased in the ports of the Gulph of Finland, or of the Baltic, belonging to Russia, is granted to his Majesty the King of Sweden, free of the export duty, on proof being shewn that the purchase has been made on his account, or in virtue of his authority. -Years of scarcity, in which the exportation shall be prohibited, are excepted, but the quantity in arrear, in consequence of such order, may be made up when the prohibition shall be removed.
XIX. With respect to salutes at sea, the two High Contracting Parties agree to regulate them on the footing of the most perfect equality between the two Crowns. When their vessels of war meet at sea, the salutes shall take place in conformity to the rank of the Commanders, in such manner that be who holds the superior rank shall receive the first salute, which shall be returned gun for gun. If the commanders are of equal rank, no salute shall take place on either side ; before castles, fortresses, and at the entrance of ports, the party arriving shall salute first, and the salute shall be returned gun for gun.
XX. Difficulties which may arise on points not determined hy this Treaty shall be discussed and settled by Ambassadors or Ministers Plenipotentiary respectively appointed, who shall be guided by the spirit of conciliation which has dictated the Treaty.
XXI. This Treaty shall he ratified by the two Contracting Powers; and the ratifications exchanged in proper and due form, within four weeks, or sooner, if possible, reckoning from the day of the signature of the present Treaty.-In faith of which we, the undersigned, in virtue of our full powers, have signed the present Treaty of Peace, and have thereto affixed our seals.
Done at Friedricksham, this 517th of September, in the year of Grace, 1809;
Count Nicholas de ROMANZOFF.
A. F. SKJOLDEBRAND.
Source: Cobbett's Political Register. Vol. XVI. From July to December 1809. London: Printed by T.C. Hansard, Peterborough Court, Fleet Street: Published by Richard Bagshaw, Brydges Street, CoventGarden. (Scanned by Google)
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