Treaty of Non-Aggression between the Soviet Union and Finland 21 January 1932 Original text in French

Treaty of Non-Aggression and Pacific Settlement of Disputes between the Soviet Union and Finland, concluded on January 21, 1932


The President of the Republic of Finland on the one part, and
the Central Executive Committee of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics on the other part,
actuated by the desire to contribute to the maintenance of general peace,
being convinced that the conclusion of the undertakings mentioned below and the pacific settlement of any dispute whatsoever between Finland and the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics is in the interests of both High Contracting Parties and will contribute towards the development of friendly and neighbourly relations between the two counties,
declaring that none of the international obligations which they have hitherto assumed debars the pacific development of their mutual relations or is incompatible with the present Treaty, being desirous of confirming and completing the General Pact of August 27, 1928 for the renunciation of war
have resolved to conclude the present Treaty and have appointed as their plenipotentiaries:
For the President of the Republic of Finland:
Minister for Foreign Affairs, Baron A. S. Yrjö-Koskinen, and
For the Central Executive Committee of the Socialist Soviet Republics:
Extraordinary Envoy and Minister Plenipotentiary Jean Maisky,
who, after examining their full powers, which were found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions:

First article.
1. The High Contracting Parties mutually guarantee the inviolability of the frontiers existing between the Republic of Finland and the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics, as fixed by the Treaty of Peace concluded at Dorpat on October 14, 1920, which shall remain the firm foundation of their relations, and reciprocally undertake to refrain from any act of aggression directed against each other.
2. Any act of violence attacking the integrity and inviolability of the territory or the political independence of the other High Contracting Party shall be regarded as an act of aggression, even if it is committed without declaration of war and avoids warlike manifestations.

Protocol to the first article.

In conformity with the provisions of Article IV of the present Treaty, the Agreement of June 1, 1922 regarding measures ensuring the inviolability of the frontiers shall not be affected by the provisions of the present Treaty and shall continue to remain fully in force.

Article II.
1. Should either High Contracting Party be the object of aggression on the part of one or more third Powers, the other High Contracting Party undertakes to maintain neutrality throughout the duration of the conflict.
2. Should either High Contracting Party resort to aggression against a third Party, the other High Contracting Party may denounce the present Treaty without notice.

Article III.
Each of the High Contracting Parties undertakes not to become a party of any treaty, agreement or convention which is openly hostile to the other party or contary, whether formally or in substance, to the present Treaty.

Article IV.
The obligations mentioned in the preceding Articles of the present Treaty may in no case affect or modify the international rights or obligations of the High Contracting parties under agreements concluded or undertakings assumed before the coming into force of the present Treaty, in so far as such agreements contain no elements of aggression within the meaning of the present Treaty.

Article V.
The High Contracting Parties declare that they will always endeavour to settle in a spirit of justice any disputes of whatever nature or origin which may arise between them, and will resort exclusively to pacific means of settling such disputes. For this purpose, the High Contracting parties undertake to submit any disputes which may arise between them after the signature of the present Treaty, and which it may not have been possible to settle through diplomatic proceedings within a reasonable time, to a procedure of conciliation before a joint conciliation commission whose powers, composition and working shall be fixed by a special supplementary Convention, which shall form an integral part of the present Treaty and which the High Contracting Parties undertake to conclude as soon as possible and in any event before the present treaty is ratified. Conciliation procefure shall also be applied in the event of any dispute as to application or interpretation of a Convention concluded between the High Contracting Parties, and particularly the question whether the mutual undertaking as to non-aggression has or has not been violated.

Article VI.
The present Treaty shall be ratified and the instruments of ratification shall be exchanged at Moscow.

Article VII.
The present Treaty shall enter into force at the moment of the exchange of the instruments of ratification.

Article VIII.
The present Treaty is concluded for three years. If it is not denounced by one of the High Contracting Parties, after a notice not less than six months before the expiry of that period, it shall be automatically renewed for a new period of two years.

Article IX.
The present Treaty is drawn up in duplicate in French at Helsinki on the 21st of January, 1932.
In faith thereof, the plenipotentiaries has signed the present Treaty and have attached their seals on it.

A. S. Yrjö-Koskinen.
(L. S.)
J. Maisky.
(L. S.)

Maiski Yrjö-Koskinen"
The instruments of ratification were exchanged at Moscow on the 9th of August 1932.
The Protocol prolonging the Treaty of Non-Aggression up to 31 December 1945.

This translation is published in the book "The Major International Treaties 1914-1973" by J.A.S. Grenville, London 1974. The omitted parts describing some technicalities are completed by Pauli Kruhse. An other translation in the book: Against Aggression. Speeches by Maxim Litvinov (pp. 148-151). International Publishers Co Inc., New York. Printed in Great Britain. 1939.

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