Documents of 1917-1918 and later.
- A Manifesto by the Provisional Government of Russia, March 7/20, 1917, on restoration and full reinstatement of the Constitution of Finland.
The editorial and a declaration of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party (bolsheviks) in their organ Pravda on 15(28) March, 1917. The rebirth of Russia as a fully free and democratic country was emphasized, and the Russian way to overthrow the old regimes in other countries, too, was suggested, but until this, Russia will stay loyal to her commitments and present allies, Britain and France.
- Lenin and 32 fellow travellers crossed the Swedish-Russian (Finnish) border at Tornio on 15th of April, 1917 (2nd of April Old Style, then used by Russian border Gendarmerie). The Sveaborg Naval Port was taken over by various revolutionary groups. "Volna", the organ of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party there, told about Lenin's arrival at its front page. Translation of this article "Lenin and the bourgeoisie". April 15, 1917. (National Archives of Finland, National Library of Finland)
- The Russian minister of justice, A.F. Kerensky, speaking to the sailors of the Russian Baltic Navy at Sveaborg Naval Port, Helsinki, Finland, on 30 March, 1917 (Next day Finnish newspaper report). Kerensky in the Finnish Parliament April 13, 1917 (A newspaper column in Helsinki).
- Lenin on the independence of Finland. Pravda 2(15) May 1917.
- Finnish Social Democrats at the 1917 Stockholm Peace Conference. Press communiqué, May 25, 1917.
- Speech of Evert Huttunen,
Finnish Social Democrat and member of the Finnish Parliament, in support of full independence for Finland, at the First All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies in Petrograd, June 20, 1917.
- The Law on the Supreme Power in Finland, June 18, 1917.
- The manifesto of the Russian Provisional Government about dissolving the Finnish Diet, June 31, 1917.
- An Interview with N. V. Nekrasov, Newly Appointed Governor General of Finland, in Sept. 1917.
- Josef Stalin's speech delivered at the Congress of the Finnish Social-Democratic Labour Party, Nov. 14, 1917.
- A report on the meeting of a delegation of the Finnish Social Democratic Party with Lenin and Stalin at Smolna, Petrograd, on Dec.9, 1917. Three days earlier the Finnish Parliament had declared Finland independent and the Finnish Social Democrats - although pro-independence - had a different approach and were asking advice how to proceed. (The Archives of the Labor Movement, K.H.Wiik's Collection)
- The speech of Joseph Stalin on Finland's independence at the Bolshevik Central Executive Committee meeting, Dec. 22, 1917. Pravda reports.
- The Declaration of Independence adopted by the Finnish Diet on Dec. 6, 1917
- Recognition of Finland's independence by the Soviet government, Dec. 18/31, 1917.
- Proclamation of the "revolutionary government of Finland", Jan. 28, 1918. Proclamation of the Finnish Senate, Jan. 28, 1918.
- The statement of revolutionary support by I. Smilga, representing the revolutionary committee of the Russian navy base in Helsinki, early February 1918. An account (in Russian)
of Colonel M.S. Svechnikov, Deputy Chief of the Finnish Red Guard, on events in 1917-1918, preceding the coup d'etat by the Reds (excerpt from his book of 1923, published in Soviet Russia).
- A treaty of friendship (Heninen) was concluded between the revolutionary governments of Russia and Finland on March 1, 1918.
- The Peace Treaty at Brest-Litovsk (Brigham Young University Library), on March 3, 1918, between Germany and Soviet Russia also stipulated the withdrawal of Russian troops in Finland and denied them any involvement in Finnish affairs.
- Peace treaty between the imperial Germany and Finland on March 7, 1918. The memorandum of Finnish negotiators sent to the White Government in Vaasa.
- The agreement between Swedish and German naval detachments on conduct on the Aaland Islands, March 6, 1918. Correspondence between King Gustav of Sweden and Czar Nicholas about fortifications on the Aaland Islands, May-June, 1916.
- The landing of the German naval detachment (Ostsee-Division) in Hanko went without difficulties. The Finnish Government, which had fled to the city of Vaasa, some 400 km from Helsinki, declared
to the population that the German troops have Government authorization
and every assistance should be given to them. The troops then quickly
marched from Hanko, some 130 km west from the city, to Helsinki. Before
their arrival, the militarily powerful Russian Baltic Fleet, now taken
over by the Bolsheviks, sent emissars from Helsinki to Rear Admiral
Meurer in Hanko. An agreement on peaceful retrieval of the Russian navy was signed on April 5, 1918.
- Helsinki fell, actually with a minimal resistance, to the
Germans on April 12, 1918. Simultaneously Finnish government troops,
led by General Mannerheim, advanced from the north. Members of the
revolutionary top government fled to Russia. Most of the Red Guards,
however, fell into the hands of government troops and were imprisoned.
The rebel leaders fled to the Soviet Russia, where most of they
themselves fell victims of the Stalin purges in 1937-1938. The Senate
moved back to Helsinki on May 6, 1918.
- The railway line between Beloostrov-Petrograd, part of the Finnish State Railways, seized by Bolsheviks, May 15, 1918.
- After the war groups of eminent people sought ways to secure
the independence of Finland. The role of Germany was seen as pivotal.
Setting up a monarchy was regarded as a solution to this. The newspaper
"Helsingin Sanomat" published several appeals by eminent people both supporting monarchy, as of May 14, and republic, as of May 27, 1918.
- German-Finnish-Russian agreement of releasing prisoners. July 1918.
- Supplementary treaty (text in German and English) to the Treaty of Peace between Russia and the Central Powers. Signed at Berlin, 27 August, 1918. In the article 5 of Part III Germany guarantees that no attacks from the Finnish side will be launched against Russia, esp. Petrograd, during the time the Russians are expelling the Entente troops in northern Russia. The Finnish government learned this German stipulation only afterwards. Text in Russian.
- The declaration of principles of
the Finnish Communist Party. Founded by the Red leaders who in April
fled to Russia after the failed coup. Moscow, Aug.-Sept., 1918.
- The Svinhufvud senate prepared a monarchical constitution and
remitted it to the Diet. It was, however, not adopted. The government
then interpreted the situation so that the stipulations of the old
Swedish 1772 form of Government are valid. The old law recognized only
a king as a head of state. A request, adopted only by less than half
(but by majority, anyway) of the Diet, was presented to a German
Prince, Friedrich Karl. He never directly accepted becoming a monarch.
When Germany's defeat was imminent in December 1918, he finally turned the request down.
- Lenin comments the national question in the 8th Party Congress in Moscow, March 19, 1919.
- General Mannerheim's open letter
to the President and Government of Finland urging Finland to join the
White effort to overthrow the Bolsheviks. Paris, Oct. 28, 1919. Finnish
Government turned down this request.
- The Finnish emigré communists in Petrograd welcome the forthcoming peace treaty between Finland and Soviet Russia. The Tartu (Dorpat) Peace Treaty of 1920.
- Member of the Soviet peace treaty delegation, Platon Kerzhentzev, interviewed for Soviet Russia, official organ for RSFSR, published in New York, Dec. 18, 1920.
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